Dr. Shimazu
Examples from APA Publication Manual

2.01  Orderly Presentation of Ideas

Neither overuse nor underuse one type of punctuation, such as commas or dashes (APA manual, 2001, p. 32).

2.02  Smoothness of Expression

A reading by a colleague may uncover problems.  Put the manuscript aside and read it later (possibly the next day).

2.03  Economy of Expression

Wordiness.   Reason  and  because often appear in the same sentence; they have the same meaning, and therefore they should not be used together (APA, 2001, p. 35).

Redundancy.   The italicized words are redundant and should be omitted:
 They were both alike
 a total of 68 participants
 absolutely essential
 has been previously found
 small in size
 in close proximity
 completely unanimous
 just exactly
 period of time
 summarize briefly
 the reason is because

 INSTRUCTIONS:  Fill in each blank using Hiragana so that the sentence will make sense.

Better (Clear):
 INSTRUCTIONS:  Using Hiragana, fill in each blank so that the sentence will make sense.

 These data only provide a partial answer.

 These data provide only a partial answer.

That versus which.   Use that for restrictive clauses.
 The animals that performed well in the first experiment were used in the second experiment (APA, p. 95).

While versus although.   Use while to link events occurring simultaneously; use although, whereas, and, or but in place of while.

 Bragg (1965) found that participants performed well, while Bohr (1969) found that participants did poorly.

 Bragg (1965) found that participants performed well, whereas Bohr (1969) found  that participants did poorly.

 While these findings are unusual, they are not unique.

 Although these findings are unusual, they are not unique.

Since versus because

 Data for 2 participants were incomplete since these participants did not report for follow-up testing.

 Data for 2 participants were incomplete because these participants did not report for follow-up testing (APA, 2001, p. 57).

Between and and

 between 2.5-4.0 years of age

 between 2.5 and 4.0 years of age

Both and and

 The names were both difficult to pronounce and spell.

 The names were both difficult to pronounce and to spell.      (APA, p. 58)

 • When you develop a clear writing style and use correct grammar, you show concern not only for accurately presenting your knowledge and ideas but also for easing the reader's task.

 • Avoid words with surplus or unintended meaning (e.g., cop for police officer, kid for child), which may distract if not actually mislead the reader.

3.06  Quotation Marks

•  to introduce a word or phrase used as an ironic comment, as slang, or as an intended or coined expression.  Use quotation marks the first time the word or phrase is used; thereafter, do not use quotation marks (APA, 2001, p.82).

......the "without-online" students appeared to be alert and to learn faster than the "with-online" students. The without-online students exhibited qualities such as willing to guess, not being inhibited, willing to make mistakes, etc.

3.07   Parentheses

The author stated, "The effect disappeared within minutes" (Lopez, 1993, p. 311), but she did not say which effect.

Lopez (1993) found that "the effect disappeared within minutes" (p. 311).          (APA, 2001, p. 85).

 • to enclose the citation or page number of a direct quotation (see APA, 2001, p. 120).

3.08  Brackets.   Do not use brackets if the material can be set off easily with commas without confounding meaning.

  (as Imai [2003] later concluded)

  (as Imai, 2003, later concluded)

 Do not use a slash when a phrase would be clearer.
  Each child handed the ball to her mother/guardian.         (APA, p. 88)

  Each child handed the ball to her mother or guardian.

 • APA follows Webster's Collegiate in most cases.

3.33  Seriation

Within a paragraph or sentence, identify elements in a series by lowercase letters (not italicized) in parentheses.

The participant's three choices were (a) working with another participants, (b) working with a team, and (c) working alone.

If the elements of a series within a paragraph constitute a compound sentence and are preceded by a colon, capitalize the first word of the first item.

The experiments on which we report were designed to address two such findings: (a) Only a limited class of pattern stimuli, when paired with color, subsequently contingently elicit aftereffects, and (b) decreasing the correlation between grid and color does not degrade the McCollough effect (APA, 2001, p. 116).

Prefixes That Do Not Require                 Prefixes That Require Hyphens

Prefix              Example
anti                  antisocial
bi                     bilingual
co                    coworker
meta                metacognitive                         meta            meta-analysis
multi                multiphase
pre                   preexperimental                      pre              pre-UCS trial
post                  postwar                                  post             post-1970
pro                   prowar                                    pro              pro-Freudian
                                                                       self              self-esteem
re                     reevaluate                                re                re-pair [pair again]
                                                                                                                                  (APA, 2001, pp. 92-93)

Re:  Reporting Scores

           98.6              98.6                              1.81           ?
           97.63                                                 0.28          .6
           80                 80                                 0.6            .88
           80.1              80.1                              0.1            .71

           98.60            98.6                              1.81
           97.63            --                                  0.28          .60
           80.00            80.0                              0.60          .88
           80.10            80.1                              0.10          .71

 •  If a cell cannot be filled because data were not obtained or are not reported, insert a dash-- in that cell.
 •  If the data are not applicable (N/A), leave the cell blank.      (APA, 2001, p. 159)

3.71  Ruling of Tables  
Typesetting requirements restrict the use of rules (i.e., lines) in a table. Limit the rules to those that are necessary for clarity, and use horizontal rather than vertical rules (APA, 2001, p. 173).

Table 1
Number of Examinees by Gender and Language Background

                                               Comparison Group                         Experimental Group
                                               ________________                      __________________
Characteristic                                           %                                                  %

     Male                                        23        58.97                                34         72.34
     Female                                    16         41.03                                13         27.66
     Total                                       39       100.00                                47       100.00

Language Background
     English                                    24         61.54                                25         53.19
     Chinese                                     8         20.51                                13         27.66
     Vietnamese                               2           5.13                                  4           8.51
     Korean                                      3           7.69                                  1           2.13
     Spanish                                     1           2.56                                  2           4.26
     Indonesian                                1           2.56                                  1           2.13
     Thai                                          0           0.00                                  1           2.13
     Total                                       39         99.99                                47       100.01

Reference List

 Examples of references to periodicals

 2.  Journal article, two authors, journal paginated by issue

 Klimoski, R., & Palmer, S. (2003). The ADA and the hiring process in
            organizations.  Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 45(2), 1040-1049.

 8.  Newsletter article, no author

 The new health-care lexicon. (2003, August/September).  Copy Editor, 4, 1-2.

 9.  Daily newspaper article, no author

 New drug appears to sharply cut risk of death from heart failure. (2003, July 15).  The Washington
            Post, p. A12.

 20.  Non-English journal article, title translated into English

 Shimazu, Y. M. (1998). EPILOGUE Aum kanbu o datsusenno shita no-kinou gakusha long interview:
            Mind control shakai-sono hametsu no shinario [EPILOGUE: An interview; A brain-functionalist
            who deprogrammed Aum's top leaders; A devastating scenario--mind control society].
            Takarajima, 304, 224-271.

 24.  Books, group author (government agency) as publisher

 The Tsukuba Group. (1992).  Situational functional Japanese  volume 3: Notes (2nd ed.).  Tokyo:

 26.  Books, no author or editor, no date

 Japonica Kanji no renshu, shogaku 4-nen. (n.d.).  Tokyo: Showa.

 • Place the title in the author's position.                                                                       (APA, p. 249)
 • Use n.d. (no date) when a publication date is not available.                                     (APA, p. 273)

 31.  Non-English book

 Plaget, J. & Inhelder, B. (1951).  La genese de I'idee de hasard chez I'enfant [The origin of the idea of
            chance in the child]. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.

 • Cite the original: Give the original title and, in brackets, the English translation (APA, p. 251).

 34.  Article or chapter in an edited book, two editors

 Bjork, R. A. (2004). Retrieval inhibition as an adaptive mechanism in human memory.  In H. L. Roediger  
             III  &   F. I. M. Craik (Eds.), Varieties of memory & consciousness (pp. 309-330).  Hillsdale, NJ:

 37. Non-English article or chapter in an edited book, titles translated into English

  Shimazu, Y. M. (1978).  Tenki no amerika to gengo kyoiku [The US at a turning point in language
            education].  In  Shin eigo kyoiku (Vol. 109,  pp. 39-40).  Tokyo:  Sanyusha.

 39.  English translation of an article or chapter in an edited book, volume in a multivolume work, republished work

 Freud, S. (1961).  The ego and the id. In J. Stanchey (Ed. & Trans.), The standard edition of the
            complete psychological works of Sigmund Freud (Vol. 19,  pp. 3-66).  London: Hogarth
            Press. (Original work published 1923)

 40.  English translation of an article or chapter in an edited book, reprint from another source

 • If the English translation of a non-English work is used as the source, cite the English translation:  Give
            the English title without brackets  (see p. 255).

 42.  Report available from the National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

 Osgood, D. W., & Wilson, J. K. (2004). Covariation of adolescent health problems. Lincoln:
            University of Nebraska.  (NTIT No. PB 91-154 377/AS)

 71.  Internet articles based on a print source

 Vanden Bos, G., Knapp, S., & Doe, J. (2003). Role of reference elements in the selection of resources by
            psychology undergraduates. Journal of Bibliographic Research, 5, 117-123.  Retrieved March 13,
            2004, from http://journals.apa.org/prevention/volume3/pre003331a.html

 EPILOGUE.  (1998).  An interview: A brain-functionalist who deprogrammed Aum's top leaders;  A
            devastating scenario--mind control society.  Takarajima, 304, 224-271.  Retrieved January 1, 2009,
            from http://www.sjsu.edu/faculty/y.shimazu/epilogueDrT.html

 77.  Stand-alone document, no author identified, no date

 GVU's 8th WWW user survey. (n.d.).  Retrieved March 13, 2004, from

 E-mail.  Email sent from one individual to another should be cited as a personal communication
            (see section 3.102, APA, p. 214).

 86.  Message posted to online forum or discussion group

 Simons, D. J. (2004, March 13).  New resources for visual cognition [Msg 31].  Message posted
           to http:/groups.yahoo.com/group/visualcognition/message/31

5.12  Seriation

To indicate seriation of separate paragraphs (e.g., itemized conclusions or successive steps in a procedure), number each paragraph with an arabic numeral, followed by a period but not enclosed in or followed by parentheses:

         1.  Begin with paragraph indent.  Type second and succeeding
lines flush left.
         2.  The second item begins a new paragraph.                                           (APA, 2001, p. 292)

5.13  Quotations

Quotation marks and other punctuation.   When a period or comma occurs with closing quotation marks, place the period or comma before the quotation marks.  Put other punctuation (e.g., colon, semicolon) outside quotation marks unless it is part of the quoted material.

At the beginning of each trial, the experimenter said, "This is a new trial."

After the experimenter said, "This is a new trial," a new trial began.

Did the experimenter forget to say, "This is a new trial"?                                  (APA, 2001, p. 293)

Source:  http://sjsu.edu/faculty/y.shimazu/APAexamples.html
American Psychological Association. (2001). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.

Questions may be directed to ymshimazu@gmail.com.
editor: Mozilla 1.7.13